Attested:  RC Croucingo

Where:  Burnswark hill fort, at NY186787, identified by the sequence of names in RC, as pointed out by Frere (2001).  The way it is surrounded by Roman siege works has been much discussed, with opinion recently hardening up that this was the site of a proper battle not mere practice.

Name origin:  A compound of the ‘circle’ word discussed at great length by Allcroft (1927,1930) plus Latin cingo ‘to surround’.

Notes:  Previous investigators (such as Richmond and Crawford, 1949) missed the perfect match of name to site because of their fixation on Celtic interpretations of ancient name elements.  In this case *cruc seems to have meant a ring-work fortification, like the English descendant word church(yard), not a tumulus, like the Welsh descendant word crug ‘mound’.  We were initially fooled too, and cited the modern Scots word croy, meaning a simple dam built partway across a river, as a reason to site Croucingo wrongly at Netherby.

Standard terms of use:You may copy this text freely, provided you acknowledge its source, recognise that it is liable to human error, and try to offer suggestions for improvement.
Last Edited: 15 February 2017