Attested: AI iter 2 Luguvallo, iter 5 Luguvalio; RC Lagubalium/Lagubalumi; altar stone ...VALI; Bede Lugubalia
Where: Carlisle Roman fort at NY397561.
Name origin: The -valium part could in principle come from various words derived from PIE *wal- ‘to be strong’ (such as Phrygian βαλλην ‘king’) or *wel- ‘to turn’ (even in a personal name, as suggested by R&S), but the Staffordshire Moorlands Pan’s RIGORE VALI proves that it resembled Latin vallum ‘palisaded rampart’. The word survives in Welsh as gwal and in English as as wall. The Lugu- part has attracted much unsatisfactory speculation about a god *Lugus, but Carlisle is geographically similar to other Lug- places in having an open view, over a river flood plain, appropriate to PIE *leuk- ‘bright’ or German dialectal lugen ‘to look’, as discussed here.. It might also be the place where the Wall was linked (ligated) across the river Eden
Notes: Strabo mentioned a marsh called Λουγεον near Trieste, which has been interpreted (perversely) as meaning ‘black’.
Last Edited: 29 March 2017