Attested:  AI iter 2 Luguvallo, iter 5 Luguvalio;  RC Lagubalium/Lagubalumi;  altar stone ...VALI;  Bede Lugubalia

WhereCarlisle Roman fort at NY397561.

Name origin:  The -valium part could in principle come from various words derived from PIE *wal- ‘to be strong’ or *wel- ‘to turn’ (even in a personal name, as suggested by R&S), but the Staffordshire Moorlands Pan’s RIGORE VALI proves that it resembled Latin vallum ‘palisaded rampart’.  The word survives in Welsh as gwal and in English as as wall.  The Lugu- part has attracted much unsatisfactory speculation about a god *Lugus, but Carlisle is geographically similar to other Lug- places in having an open view, over a river flood plain, appropriate to PIE *leuk- ‘bright’ or German dialectal lugen ‘to look’, as discussed here..  It might also be the place where the Wall was linked (ligated) across the river Eden

Notes:  Strabo mentioned a marsh called Λουγεον near Trieste, which has been interpreted (perversely) as meaning ‘black’.

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Last Edited: 27 December 2016