Attested:  (1) RC Presidium;  (2) ND Praesidium and Praesidio.

Where:  (1) At or near Newton Stewart, where the Roman road heading west on the north of the Solway Firth needed to cross the river Cree, possibly at Machermore ford NX413651 or a little downstream.
(2) R&S wondered if this name should be placed at York, by linking two lines in ND: Praefectus legionis sextae and Praefectus equitum Dalmatiorum, Praesidio.  That seems unlikely, so other possibilities have been discussed, including a suggestion that Praesidio was a variant of Praetorio at one of the destinations of Roman roads on the Yorkshire coast, such as Bridlington, Filey, Whitby, or Scarborough, where the Romans had a signal station and perhaps even a fort under the mediaeval castle.  On balance, however, the strongest candidate seems to be the Roman fort at Newton Kyme SE45644535 (near Tadcaster), reported here, because it was large, occupied in the late Roman period, and close to a large henge.

Name Origin:  Latin praesidium is often translated as ‘garrison post’, as discussed by Bishop (1999), but it literally meant ‘presiding over’ applied to soldiers serving as a guard, garrison, escort, or convoy.  Another translation of ‘police station’ describes how it watched over a supply route.

Notes:  Downstream of (1) were Ptolemy's Ιηνα estuary (the mouth of the river Cree) and Λουκοπιβια (near Wigtown).  ND named a unit of Dalmatian cavalry based at (2), but that does not help to pin down a location.  At least ten other Praesidia are recorded elsewhere across the Empire.  A particularly good example is at Khirbet al Khalde, in Jordan, on a trade route north of Aqaba.

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Last edited: 12 December 2018