AttestedRavonia at position 123 in the Ravenna Cosmography

Where:  Somewhere in or near the Lake District, most likely the fort and camps at Troutbeck, NY382272, beside the A66 road between Keswick and Penrith.

Name originRavonia has possible parallels in the river Ravi in India, from Sanskrit sravat ‘river’, or in the English word ravine, from French ravin, possibly from PIE rep- ‘to grab, rip out, ravish’ (as at Ravatonium).  This might fit the Trout Beck, a modest stream just south of the Roman fort that has cut quite a deep gully, with an upstream name Groove Beck.

Notes:  Richmond & Crawford thought that Ravonia was a scribal error for Bravoniacum, at Kirkby Thore, but there is no good reason for that site to come between Derventione and Bresnetenaci Veteranorum in the Cosmography's list, as it would be geographically more logical between Valteris and Bereda.  The main (small) fort and its larger (?earlier) neighbouring fort and camp at Troutbeck are gratifying clear on aerial photos and Lidar, with an obvious site where a Roman bridge collapsed, to be replaced by a ford, and then messed up by a railway line.  Ravonia seems to be followed by one of the few big jumps that interrupt the Cosmography's track.

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Last edited 14 April 2020     to main Menu