Attested:  Tacitus Annals 12, 31: ... et Sabrinam fluvios ...
   Ptolemy 2,3,3 Σαβρινα εισχυσις;   mentioned by Gildas and Bede

Where:  The river Severn.  Ptolemy's coordinates map surprisingly high up the river, close to Gloucester, around SO7510.

Name origin:  Many river names came from PIE *sab- ‘juice’ (whose English descendants include sap, savoury, and insipid).  Villar (2000) listed eight Indo-European examples beginning with Sab-, six with Sav-, and four with Sau-.  The –rina part has plenty of flowing-water parallels, such as the river Rhine, Irish rían ‘sea’, or OE ryne ‘water channel’, whose PIE root is debatable: possibly *rendh- ‘to tear up’ or *er- or *reiə- ‘to flow (fast)’.

Notes:  Initial S changed to H in later Welsh (Hafren) but not English.  The idea of Sabrina as a goddess, like so much reported by Geoffrey of Monmouth, may be spurious.

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Last Edited: 1 April 2018