Attested:  RC Veluniainscription VELUNIATE

WhereCarriden fort, near Bo’Ness, Firth of Forth, in a logical position to have been a ‘command post’ for the Antonine Wall.

Name origin:  For the much-discussed name element *vellaunus, Delamarre (2003) came down firmly on a meaning like ‘commanding’.  Some poorly attested Celtic words may be related, notably Gaelic folladh ‘ruling’, but the best parallels are Germanic, such as Dutch bevelen and German befehlen ‘to order, to command’, OE befeolan ‘to commit’, Icelandic fela ‘to assign’, etc.  (Modern English feal, fealty, feudal, etc. have become confused with Latin roots.)

Notes:  Later names recorded there (Kinneil/Cenail/Penguaul/Peanfahel/Penneltun and Carriden/Karreden/Kair Eden) show no real continuity with the Roman form, but testify to Scotland's multiple languages.  The idea that Vellaunus was a Celtic god should not be taken seriously.

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Last Edited: 24 May 2017