AttestedVoreda on iter 2 of the Antonine Itinerary;  Bereda at position 128 in the Ravenna Cosmography ;  inscription V#R#D

Where:  Roman fort at Old Penrith, at NY493384, beside the river Petterill.  A posting station on the Roman road (Margary's 7e, now the A6) through Cumbria towards Carlisle.

Name origin:  Latin veredus ‘courier's horse’.  The –red- part is from PIE *reidh- ‘to ride’.  The first element is a prefix that was very productive in Germanic languages, as ver- in Dutch or for- in English, often with a sense of ‘away’, from PIE *per- ‘to bear, to carry’.

NotesVeredus survives in Welsh as gorwydd ‘horse’ and in English as palfrey (from paraveredus).  The claim that initial Ver-/Vor- descended from PIE *upo- ‘under’ by Celtic-style loss of P, to yield *uo-, and then “Gaulish” *voredos was loaned into Latin, is hard to believe, not least because Welsh gor-, as in gorwydd, tends to mean ‘over’.

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Last edited 8 April 2020     to main Menu