Attested: Ptolemy 2,3,16 Καλατον (or Καλαγον); might be the same as RC Caluvio, but probably not RC Galluvio or AI iter 10 Galacum.
Where: Probably the Roman fort at Burrow-in-Lonsdale, Lancashire, SD61527584, near the confluence of Leck Beck with the river Lune, and near modern Kirkby Lonsdale. Substantial native settlement in this area, to fit Ptolemy's focus on native central places is indicated by the Casterton stone circle at SD6393479995 and lots of burial mounds. The main Roman north-south road east of the fort has been accurately traced by Lidar. Another route across Britain, roughly on the line from Lancaster to the river Tees, passed through this area, making it a key travel nexus.
Name Origin: Initial Καλ- has many potential sources, including PIE *gal- ‘to call’, appropriate for a communal gathering place, or Graeco-Latin calamus, approriate for reeds growing in the wetlands surrounding the river Lune. Final -ατον looks like a banal noun ending, equivalent to Latin -atum.
Notes: This analysis overrules a previous preference for Galacum, which has now been shifted to Lancaster. Ptolemy would have been aware of Calatia in ancient Italy.
Last Edited: 10 March 2018