Coria

Attested:  (1) Ptolemy 2,3,9 Κορια, a πολις of the Δαμνονιοι
   (2) Ptolemy 2,3,10 Κο(υ)ρια, a πολις of the Ωταδινοι
   (3) RC Corie;  Vindolanda tablets 154,175,266,312  Coris

Where:  (1) Possibly in the vicinity of Hamilton Mote Hill, NS727566, near the upper river Clyde, south-east of Glasgow.  This was a tribal assembly point, first documented around AD 1000, with the Bothwellhaugh Roman fort a discreet distance away at NS73105775.  Marx (2013) declined to suggest a location, but nearby sites mentioned by Ptolemy suggest where to look.  The Roman fort on Barochan Hill at NS41486906, suggested by R&S, seems much less likely.
(2) Probably the hillfort on Arthur's Seat in Edinburgh, at NT276728, because this is a better πολις to be called Κορια than either Borthwick Castle suggested by Marx (2013) or the Roman fort at Inveresk suggested by Marx (2013).
(3) Corbridge Roman fort and supply base at NY982648, a little way south of Hadrian's Wall.  The name Coria suggests a pre-Roman, indigenous power centre, for which Shildon hill-fort is perhaps the strongest candidate.  Presumably the focus of this area moved to the town that developed by the lowest fordable place on the river Tyne, when the Romans took control and the army passed through on their way up Dere Street into Scotland.  The area would have developed much more when Hadrian's Wall was built and during later campaigns into Scotland, notably under Severus.  See under Corstopitum for a map of this neigbourhood.

Name Origin:  Latin curia ‘court, tribal assembly’, to fit Ptolemy's πολις, which would mean a city around the Mediterranean.  Possibly influenced by Greek χωρια ‘places’, or χωρις ‘apart’, or χωρα ‘landed estate’, and/or Latin coria ‘hides, leather’.

Notes:  R&S set out some of the issues involved (from a Celtic perspective), but for a much wider discussion of all the circle-words that led to church, curia, crug, etc applied to mounds, see Allcroft.  Old English gor ‘dung, dirt’ shows up in later place names, but it seems unlikely that the river Tyne at Corbridge was disgustingly muddy.

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