Ουξελλα

Attested:  (1) Ptolemy 2,3,3  Ουξελλα εισχυσις
  (2) Ptolemy 2,3,8  Ουξελλον or Ουζελλον a πολις of the Σελγοουαι; RC Uxela
  (3) Ptolemy 2,3,30  Ουξελλα or Ουζελα a πολις of the Δουμνονιοι; RC Uxelis

Where:  (1) Axe estuary mouth in north Somerset, by Uphill at ST31795818 and Brean Down, formerly an important port.
  (2) Ward Law Roman camp at NY024669, uphill from Caerlaverock, Dumfries.
  (3)  Cadson Bury hillfort, at SX343673 in Cornwall, by a crossing of the the river Lynher.  This location outranks R&S's idea of a lost Roman fort under Launceston Castle mainly because it gives the best track across the map for RC's list of names, here following a Roman-style almost-straight route from Isca Dumnoniorum, the fortress at Exeter, to Duriarno, the fort near Bodmin.

Name Origin*Uxela ‘high point’ came from PIE *aug- ‘to augment’ (from *h2eug-), the source of OE eacan, Dutch oken, Gothic aukan, Latin augeo ‘to increase’, plus German auch ‘also’, Russian высокий‘high’ and Greek αυξησις ‘growth’.  R&S and others commented on the excellent parallels in Celtic words for ‘high’(Welsh uchel, Breton/Cornish uhel, Irish uasal ), and that the extra L appears in Greek υψσηλος ‘high’, but not that OE *ecels/*iecels ‘addition, land added to an estate’ contributed to many later place names across England or that the suffix -el was used extensively in Germanic noun formation (Smith, 1956).  Conjugated forms of OE eacan often contained vowel Y, presumably pronounced like Ü.

Notes:  Latin ocellus ‘little eye’, and hence perhaps ‘lookout’ plus auxilium ‘helper’ could have influenced the uptake of this name element.  Uxelodunum (Stanwix near Carlisle) and the Ochil Hills in Scotland preserve the L.  Uxacona (Redhill, Staffordshire) has no L, as does icanhoe (in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for AD 653), probably modern Iken in Suffolk, where Yarm Hill shows that in a flat landscape even a 15-metre hillock can count as high.  In France, at least 12 modern place names may derive from forms containing *uxelo-, presumed to be Celtic (Lacroix, 2003:122-3).  Below site (2) (see here for a map facing its p104) the salt-marsh has grown since Roman times due to isostatic rebound, so it is possible that the site of Caerlaverock Castle was an inlet capable of being a port, in the niche later occupied by Glencaple.  That area was settled by Friesians before AD 400, as explained by Skene (1862) (hence names such as Dumfries), which raises a suspician that Roman auxiliary troops from Frisia were encouraged to retire to farms north of Hadrian's Wall.  Site (3) controlled a significant old crossing of the river Lynher indicated by the names Durnaford (‘hidden ford’) Farm and Newbridge, while higher up that river lay metal ores likely to have interested the Romans, plus a suggestive name Upton Cross.  The lack of obvious Roman forts in this area possibly hints at mutually profitable relationships with the locals.

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Last Edited:26 February 2018