Attested: Caledonia or Calidonia as an area, and Caledonii or Καλεδονιοι as a tribe, were mentioned by many classical authors, listed by R&S pp 289-291. See also about Dicaledones.
Where: Scotland, especially north of the Antonine Wall. Ptolemy 2,3,13 explicitly situated his Καλεδονιοι in the region of the Great Glen.
Name origin: Caledonia is usually explained as derived from a Celtic form ancestral to Welsh calet, Irish calad, etc ‘hard’, which descended from PIE *kal- ‘hard’, and is suggested to refer simply to mountains. Other PIE roots (*kal- ‘beautiful’, *kal- ‘cup’, and *kel- ‘hill’, etc) have not been properly considered as alternative explanations, but the best may be *gal- ‘to call’ leading to Greek καλεω ‘to summon’. A -dones ending appeared on various ancient tribal names (Redones, Essedones, Macedonians, Myrmidons, etc), often first attested in Greek.
Notes: The process of calling the clans to arms, as described by Sir Walter Scott or put into practice during Bonny Prince Charles' rebellion, was very ancient among northern peoples, notably in Scandinavia, and survived into the Ku Klux Klan in American. See under the Silures for other ancient tribes possibly named for similar reasons. Tacitus' Calgacus may have been a sort of herald who travelled around to summon a huge number of warriors to assemble for the battle of mons Graupius rather than a great fighter himself. Classical authors' mentions of a Caledonian forest were picked up by early Welsh poets and thoroughly confused by later historians and pseudo-historians.
You may copy this text freely, provided you acknowledge its source as www.romaneranames.uk, recognise that it is liable to human error, and try to offer suggestions for improvement.
Last edited: 14 October 2018